Device for Ultraviolet Irradiation (UVI), Ozonation, AFO Generation,
Inactivation of Viruses in Blood «NADEZHDA-Î2»
The UVI device «Nadezhda-Î2» is the first apparatus for blood UVI manufactured in the CIS, which provides for the extracorporeal ultraviolet
dosing radiation on the total depth of an irradiated blood layer due to the capability for building-up the constant excess pressure of 20-50 mm Hg
in the UV lamp reflector chamber (with the chamber capacity of 180 ml). It enables to cause the backward pull of the film in the cuvette and a blood
flow of 0.1 mm thick therein (the amount of blood in the cuvette under the excess pressure of 20-50 mmHg in the irradiation chamber will be 1.8 ml).
Device «Nadezhda-02» for the ultraviolet irradiation (UVI), the ozonation, the AFO (active forms of oxygen) generation, the inactivation of viruses
in blood is a modification of the UVI device «Nadezhda» designed under the assignment of the SCST (the State Committee for Science and Technology)
at the USSR Soviet of Ministers to solve problems of the non-drug treatment and human ecology.
The UVI device «Nadezhda -Î2» is distinguishable for its air-tight easy-dismountable original construction of the UV lamp reflector chamber, where
an anterior UV-irradiated wall is a cuvette.
The UV lamp reflector chamber has two pipe unions for building-up the constant excess pressure in the UV lamp reflector by means of supplying pure oxygen
Î2, ambient air or inert gas -argon Ar, thus enabling to change irradiation spectrum: when filling the chamber with oxygen Î2 to 320-400 Nm, with ambient
air to 280-400 Nm , with inert gas (for example, argon Ar) to 180-400 Nm.
The 4 Wt UV (induction mercury-vapour) lamp has a radiation spectrum due to the minimum (0.1 mm) thickness, a wall made of the chemical and optical
purity of silica uviol glass (grade ÊÓ-1) from 180 nm to 400 nm with max. intensity of 92% within the range of 254 nm (ozone-recombination wavelength is Î3)
and due to no-electrodes it has the unlimited operating life. The shortwave ionizing radiation of the UV lamp within the range of 180-280 nm has photon energy
by tens as much than within the ranges of 280-400 nm and 320-400 nm.
The photochemical conversion of oxygen Î2 supplied to the device «Nadezhda-Î2» by the flow rate of 10 l/h results in the generation of ozone Î3 with a therapeutical concentration
of 3000 µkg/l in the enclosed volume of the UV lamp reflector chamber due to ionizing radiation within the range of 180-200 nm. Ozone Î3 is partially disintegrated under the action
of UV rays of the 200-320 nm range into Î2 and Î- (singlet oxygen). Finally, when pouring blood or saline solution through the cuvette the formed mixture of gases Î3, Î2, Î, Î- (cold
gas plasma) diffuses through the gas-permeable film of the cuvette UVBI-Î2.
The UVI device «Nadezhda Î2» enables to carry out the procedure of hematogenous oxidation therapy (HOT) due to the use of a unique UV lamp, a reflection chamber of original air-tight
design, any UVBI single use cuvette for UFI devices «Nadezhda» and that is an independent self-contained UVBI method according to the definition of V.I. Karandashov and E.B. Petukhov,
the UVBI originators in the CIS.
The use of ozone combined with the ultraviolet irradiation relates to the most up-to-date methods of the blood or saline solution activation (photolythic ozonizer).
Under the UV irradiation of water-ozone emulsion (mixture) the generation of ozone and its disintegration into atomic oxygen (Î) and singlet molecular oxygen (Î-) occurs. The simultaneous
treatment of water by oxidants (by ozone or hydrogen peroxide) and by ultraviolet light accelerates the oxidation process rate by 100-10000 times. Herewith the synergism of ozone and UV
light is observed.
In the course of the UV irradiation of blood or saline solution containing dissolved ozone the effective formation of short-living hydroxyl radicals ÎÍ- and the simultaneous ozone
The use of ozone/UV is environmentally sound.
With building up of the constant excess pressure of 20-50 mm Hg in the UV lamp reflector chamber by means of supplying inert gas-argon Ar, the hard UV radiation of the 180-280 nm range
with ionizing photon energy is not spent for the generation of ozone Î3 from atmospheric oxygen but it is only absorbed by the cuvette film material and by the medium irradiated in the
cuvette, thus, providing for the inactivation of viruses and other microbes in irradiated medium.
The UVI Device «Nadezhda-02» ensures the performance of the following procedures under any conditions (in the field environment, at home, in steady-state operating conditions):
• The extracorporeal dosing ultraviolet blood irradiation on the total depth of a radiated blood layer.
The constant pressure in the UV lamp reflector chamber may be built up under any conditions with the aid of a set of rubber air-balloons (an inflated air balloon builds up 15 mm Hg, the construction made of two balloons to be put one inside the other generates 30 mm Hg, the construction of three balloons to be put one inside another gives 50-80 mm Hg).
When filling the construction of such three air balloon put one inside the other with oxygen 02 out of an external oxygen source (an oxygen cylinder or a generator), the 3-5 l balloon volume is sufficient to carry out any procedure.
Work with any gases under constant excess (higher) pressure, especially at values of ?P from 20 to 50 mm Hg (from 300 mm H2O to 750 mm H2O), is a complex engineering solution just as the supply of fluid at the constant flow rate of 12 to 18 ml/min.
An equipment available in resuscitation and intensive therapy departments for building up the constant excess pressure of oxygen O2 or Argon Ar from 20 to 50 mm Hg in the UV lamp irradiator chamber may not be safely used without its upgrading. The construction of three balloons put one inside another performs the following 2 tasks:
• the building up of safe constant excess pressure,
• the creation of possibility to do it easily.
• The ozonation by a therapeutic dose of blood O3 in a bottle both in the course of the UVBI performance and separately (likewise the work in the OZONE mode with the device «Nadezhda-0»);
• The ozonation of saline solution in a specially prepared bottle with oxygen in a closed loop (likewise the work in the OZONE mode with the device «Nadezhda-0»);
• The generation of AFO (OH- radicals) in normal saline for the intravenous administration by the UVI method in any cuvette (cuvette UVBI, UVBI -02, UVBI-I) in the UVI device «Nadezhda-02»);
• The EUVBI under the modified method of F. Wehrli (HOT) in the following two manners:
- with the ozonation of blood by therapeutic dose of Î3 in the course of blood withdrawal and return by means of barbotage of the ozon-oxygen mixture into a bottle of glugicir;
- the preliminary ozonation in a closed loop of a bottle of glugicir filled with oxygen and putting blood thereto during the UVBI (likewise the work in the OZONE mode by using the device «Nadezhda-0»).
• The inactivation of viruses in blood plasma in cuvette UVBI-I due to the hard UV-light irradiation of the 180-280 nm range, subject to the building-up of the constant excess pressure of 20-50 mm Hg in the reflector chamber of the UV lamp by means of the supply of inert gas Argon Ar.
The UVI Device Nadezhda-02 is provided with the following two replaceable cuvette holders:
• UVBI cuvette holder
• UVBI-02 cuvette holder
it enables to carry out both the standard UVBI procedure and the UVBI procedure on the total depth of the irritated blood layer. The standard UVBI procedure may be performed on any cuvette with any holder for devices of the UVI «Nadezhda» model.
An UVI device UVI «Nadezhda Î2» is made with two discrete rates of medium flow through a cuvette (at standard rates of 12ml/min, 18ml/min) or, by preconcert, at rates by 2-3 times regulated rates within the said ranges. It enables:
• to inactivate viruses in the blood plasma at the rate of 4 ml/min under excess pressure of Ar in the UV chamber;
• to carry out hemosorption or plasmapheresis together with the UVBI at the rate of 30 ml/minñ under the excess pressure of any gas in the UV lamp reflector chamber;
• The design of a peristaltic pump for the UVI device «Nadezhda Î2» ensures the feed of 1 ml of medium for 1 revolution of the pump in tube of system ÏÊ 21-01, ÏÊ 21-05, 4õ0.5 mm in diameter. It enables to calculate the feed rate (ml/min) by the number of rotor revolutions per 1 minute.
The UVI device «Nadezhda Î2» enables also with an available permanent source of oxygen Î2 to prepare therapeutic oxygen cocktails and to ozonize vegetable oil, to carry out singlet-oxygen therapeutic procedures, to withdraw ozon-oxygen mixtures for the subcutaneous administration into active points.
The effectiveness and safety of procedures is guaranteed by the 20-year experience in the performance of the ultra-violet blood irradiation by devices «Nadezhda» and «Nadezhda-0».
While making an order a required rate of flow should be specified.
For practicing physicians having experience in work with UVBI devices «Nadezhda» and «Nadezhda-0» we carry out the upgrading of available UVBI devices produced by SPC «Biotechnik» from 1991 through 2011 up to UVBI devices «Nadezhda-02».
About the UVBI Procedure by F.Wehrli Method, HOT (Hamatogenous Oxydation Therapy) for Specialists in Intensive Therapy, Resuscitation and Efferent Methods of Treatment
In 1955 F. Wehrli used the UVBI method consisting in the foaming of blood with oxygen and its irritation in ozone atmosphere, which was named hematogenous oxidation therapy (ÍÎÒ), and advised on the positive effect of the said method in case of asthma, vascular diseases, silicosis, cardiac insufficiency, cardiac angina, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, malign neoplasm, Raynaud's disease, Hodgkin's disease, degenerative processes.
A device for ÍÎÒ (Haematogenous Oxidation Therapy) was suggested by German researchers Haas and Kast in 1940. It was made of a quartz glass bulb with a glass grain filter inside thereof. On one side of such a bulb venous blood was taken-in and it was above the said filter. On the other side pure oxygen was fed. By passing through the filter such pure oxygen foamed blood and the formed foam was subjected to UVI with the aid of a low-pressure quartz lamp.
The UVBI as HOT (F.Wehrli’s method) is followed by the active formation of ozonlipoperoxides and creates a high ozone concentration, and, thus, enables to attain the maximum oxygenation of irritated blood. According to investigations of V.I. Karandashov and E.B.Petukhov (Ultraviolet Blood Irradition. – Ì., Medicine, 1997) the blood ðÎ2 increases in this case up to 500 mm Hg at average. Investigations of H.Albers and E.Ziegher showed that during HÎÒ UVBI ozonlipoperoxides are formed from unsaturated fatty acids of plasma, which circulate in blood for 9 months. They differ from natural peroxides by their structure. Therefore, they are not destructed by peroxydase and catalase.
Ozonlipoperoxides act as effective oxygen carriers. So, 50 ml of irradiated blood is equivalent to 400 ml of non-irradiated blood. ÍÎÒ UVBI is highly effective in case of a toxic-bacterial shock as well as in cases of diseases associated with tissue ischemia. There are rarely possible a moderate hematocytolysis and the increase of free hemoglobin concentration in plasma up to 200-400 g/l (20-40 mg %).
By using the UVBI device Nadezhda 02 the modified UVBI procedure by F.Wehrli method (HOT) may be performed with any cuvette for the UVI devices Nadezhda subject to compliance with the following requirements:
1. The continuous ozonation of blood or blood plasma by therapeutic doze of Î3 by means of feeding oxygen Î2 at the flow rate of 5-10 l/h through the UV lamp irradiation chamber, which provides for the 3000 µkg/l concentration of ozone Î3 and the barbotage of the obtained ozone-oxygen mixture through blood or blood plasma;
2. Less effective is the preliminary ozonation in a closed loop of a bottle with glugicir for blood withdrawal (likewise work in the OZONE mode with the UVBI device Nadezhda Î). It provides for the 600 µkg dose of ozone Î3 in the 250 ml bottle;
3. The UVBI procedure (the withdrawal and return of blood or blood plasma through cuvette) is performed under the constant excess pressure of oxygen Î2 20-50 mm Hg in the UV lamp irradiator chamber to provide for the possibility of the medium radiation on the total depth of an irradiated layer.
The performance of EUVBI on the total depth of a blood irradiated layer by the modified method of F.Wehrli (HOT) with the UVBI device Nadezhda Î2 due to the combining of physical and plasmo-chemical methods of action provides for the partial inactivation of viruses in blood or blood plasma.
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